Instructions: Avoid fluff. It is better to answer short and to the point then to provide an answer that never really addresses the heart of the question. Final Exam PAD 199.C2 1. Please identify each stage of the legislative process of how an idea becomes a bill and then the process that must be navigated to become law. Identify the stakeholders and their interests (provide examples), their roles, and ability to provide input. Describe the challenges, shared powers, and the rules that govern the legislative process. Please be thorough. 2. More than a decade after California voters approved nearly $10 Billion to build a bullet train from San Francisco to Los Angeles, no tracks have been laid and no trains run, and costs now expected to be nearly $80 billion to construct the 800 miles, causing the federal dollars to be withheld. Even though billions of dollars HAVE been spent and the project is in trouble of ending without ever reaching the vision approved by voters, please outline your solution. What are the next steps? 3. California is experiencing an extreme housing shortage. No community, city or sector of our economy is immune to its impact. Several factors create the disparity between the supply and the demand. California has seen around 80,000 new homes built each year, far short of the projected need of 180,000 new homes needed annually. In total, Californias supply is about 4 million units short of demand with more than 80% of units unaffordable or unavailable for Californians living with extremely low income (defined as less than 30% of the area median income). This pressure is even more extreme for the 2.2 million low-income renter households competing for an existing inventory of 664,000 affordable housing rental units, resulting in a gap of 1.54 million units. While homelessness in America is declining, it is rising in California where more than 1/2 of the nations homeless reside. Despite these staggering figures, the state legislature continues to enact new laws that increase the costs of building homes. Please provide your policy solution to increase the construction of affordable housing in the state of California. 4. Judicial activism is the term used to describe the actions of judges who go beyond their constitutionally prescribed duties of applying law to the facts of individual cases, and “legislate” from the bench. These judges create new constitutional rights, amend existing ones, or create or amend existing legislation to fit their own notions of societal needs. Please provide an example of what you believe to be one instance of judicial activism within the State of California (either past or present). Present and defend your case. 5. In 2019, Californias state budget was over $220 billion dollars (with a $21 billion-dollar surplus), the largest in the nation and the 5th largest comparatively to any other economy in the world. However, due to the COVID 19 pandemic, Governor Newsom declared a state of emergency and issued a restrictive shelter-in-place order for all Californians. After 5 weeks of the shelter in place order, over 75percent of businesses have closed their doors; unemployment, which was at historic low (3.9%) is now expected to be at 15% and continuing to rise with no end in sight. The state is forecasting to receive around 39% of the PIT revenues it originally forecasted (as a reminder 48% of the states budget is provided by the top 2.1 percent of the income earners). It is a Presidential election year and you work for Governor Newsom as a fiscal advisor.